University of Vermont AAHS

Maryland Equine Infectious Anemia Regulations



.14 Equine Infectious Anemia.

A. Coggin's Test.
(1) Except as provided in this regulation, a certificate of a negative Coggin's test or other proof of a negative Coggin's test on a horse shall be presented to an association before the horse is stabled on the grounds of the association and before the horse is eligible to start in a race.
(2) The certificate shall:
(a) Identify the horse by tattoo number;
(b) Indicate that the horse was tested within 1 year before the date that the certificate is presented to the association; and
(c) Indicate that the test was conducted by a laboratory approved by the United States Department of Agriculture.
(3) The receipt and transfer of a certificate of a negative Coggin's test when a horse is claimed, sold, or transferred is the responsibility of the trainer of the horse.
(4) Proof of a negative Coggin's test shall be on a sticker attached to the foal certificate showing the following:
(a) Horse's name;
(b) Date of the test;
(c) Laboratory name and test number; and
(d) Name of the veterinarian who took the blood sample.

B. A Coggin's certificate indicating a horse is negative for equine infectious anemia is valid for 1 year from the date of the certificate's issuance.

C. Absent a valid Coggin's certificate, the stewards or judges may allow a horse to race if they have received a signed statement from an approved veterinarian licensed by the Commission indicating:
(1) When and where blood was taken from the horse; and
(2) To what laboratory the blood was sent.

D. The stewards or judges may contact the laboratory specified under C(2) of this regulation to obtain verbal confirmation that the blood was negative for equine infectious anemia.

E. Veterinarians.
(1) Veterinarians shall file individual remittance certificates with individual blood samples for each horse when testing for equine infectious anemia.
(2) Upon receipt of the certificate from a laboratory approved for conducting the test for equine infectious anemia, the veterinarian shall deliver the certificate to the trainer of the horse.
(3) Veterinarians shall notify the State veterinarian immediately upon receipt of a positive report.


.05 Horses, Mules, and Asses.
A. These animals may be imported into Maryland when accompanied by a health certificate, issued by an official veterinarian of the state of origin or of the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, United States Department of Agriculture, accredited veterinarian or a licensed graduate veterinarian who has been approved by the proper animal health official of the state of origin. The health certificate shall give the name and address of the consignor and consignee and an accurate description of the animal or animals and certify that the animal or animals, as determined by a physical examination, are free from any evidence of an infectious, transmissible, or parasitic disease and
have not been recently exposed to any infectious, transmissible, or parasitic disease.

B. All equines over 9 months old entering the State shall have been found negative to an official test for equine infectious anemia made within 12 months before entry and shall be accompanied by a copy of the negative test results.

C. A copy of the approved health certificate shall be forwarded to the Department before the arrival of the animals at their destination.

D. Equines not known to be affected with infectious, transmissible, or parasitic disease and not under restriction are exempt from the interstate health certificate requirement provided they are consigned directly to a Maryland licensed market or auction which handles equines.


.01 Definitions.
A. "Accredited veterinarian" means a licensed veterinarian approved by the U.S. Department of Agriculture and the Maryland Department of Agriculture.

B. "Approved pesticide" means any pesticide which is recognized and approved by the Department or the U.S. Department of Agriculture as an effective agent in the control or eradication of possible insect or arachnid vectors of equine infectious anemia.

C. "Department" means the Maryland Department of Agriculture.

D. "Equine infectious anemia (swamp fever)" means a disease of equines caused by a virus which is infectious in nature and spreads from horse to horse by blood sucking insects, unsterile surgical instruments (especially hypodermic needles) and the community use of equipment that produces cuts and abrasions. The virus can infect both sexes, all age groups and all breeds and species of equines. Infected animals remain carriers of the disease for their entire lifetime, constituting a potential source of spread. The disease may be acute or chronic or inapparent. There is no known cure or treatment.

E. "Horse" means any member of the equine family, including horses, mules, asses, zebra, or other equidae.

F. "Official test" means the official test for equine infectious anemia shall be:
(1) The agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) blood test accomplished by a laboratory approved by the U.S. Department of Agriculture on blood samples collected by accredited veterinarians. Only antigen licensed by the U.S. Department of Agriculture shall be used in official testing of animals for equine infectious anemia by the AGID method; or
(2) The horse inoculation test whereby blood is transferred from a suspect horse to a susceptible test horse under the direction of the Secretary.

G. "Reactor" means a horse over 9 months old whose blood reacts positively to an approved serological test for equine infectious anemia performed by an approved laboratory.

H. "Secretary" means the Secretary of Agriculture or his designee.

I. "Suspect horse" means a horse showing clinical evidence of equine infectious anemia without confirmation by tests.

.02 Dangerous Transmissible Disease.
A. Equine infectious anemia is proclaimed to be a disease of transmissible nature and henceforth shall be known as a dangerous transmissible disease.

B. Report of Tests. All tests for equine infectious anemia shall be reported to the Department. Tests conducted in an approved laboratory within the State shall be reported on official forms furnished for this purpose. Veterinarians submitting blood samples for tests in laboratories outside Maryland shall furnish a copy of the test record to the Secretary immediately upon receipt of the test results from the testing laboratory.

C. Report of Disease. A person having knowledge of the existence of equine infectious anemia or knowledge of an animal afflicted with or suffering from equine infectious anemia anywhere within the State shall immediately make a written report to the Secretary, giving the name and address of the owner or person in charge of the animal and the place where the animal is kept.

D. Identification of Reactors. Horses which disclose a positive reaction to the AGID test or horse inoculation test in Maryland shall be presented by the owner to the Department and permanently identified by a representative of the Department, using a visible body brand, by applying the letter "A" preceded by the number "51" and followed by a number assigned by the Secretary to indicate individual identification. An animal under 9 months old which reacts positively to an official test shall be quarantined and retested when 9 months old, and if positive at that time shall be subject to permanent identification and continued quarantine.

E. Quarantine. A horse found to be infected with equine infectious anemia shall be quarantined on its home farm or such other premise as may be approved by the Secretary until death. However, the Secretary may authorize the movement of infected animals to approved facilities for research purposes or for slaughter to approved facilities. The infected animal shall be segregated from all other horses in approved isolation facilities or, at the alternative of the owner, destroyed without indemnity. Isolated quarantine facilities and animals located in them shall be treated with an approved pesticide at such intervals as directed by an authorized representative of the Department.

F. Movements into Quarantined Facilities. Horses shall be moved into quarantined isolation facilities under special permit under such conditions as may be approved by the Secretary. These animals assume the same status as animals under quarantine.

G. Movement from Quarantined Facility. Foals born in quarantined facilities and found negative before reaching nine months of age, and other animals negative on tests before entry into the quarantined facility and found still negative on test before removal may be moved to a new non-infected premise but will remain under quarantine in the new location until a second negative test is made, not sooner than 30 days after removal from the original infected, quarantined facility.

H. Unaffected Horses on Quarantined Premises. Horses not infected which are located on premises where infected animals are properly quarantined in isolation are not considered to be under quarantine and may be moved from the premise intrastate.

.03 Test Requirements.
A. For Shipment into Maryland. All equines over 9 months old entering the State shall have been found negative to an official test for equine infectious anemia made within 12 months before entry, and shall be accompanied by a copy of the official negative test result or be consigned directly to a market or auction licensed by the Department.

B. For Exhibition. All equines over 9 months old assembled for supervised exhibition in the State shall have been found negative to an official test for equine infectious anemia made within 12 months before the date of the event. The supervisor of the event shall ascertain that a copy of the official negative test results accompanies each equine to the event and shall make a list of the entries and their test status available for inspection by a representative of the Secretary upon request.

C. Change of Ownership.
(1) A person may not change ownership of an equine over 9 months old unless it has been found negative to an official test for equine infectious anemia made within 12 months before the date of the change of ownership. A copy of the negative test shall accompany the equine at the time of ownership transfer and becomes the property of the new owner.
(2) Equines consigned for slaughter to an establishment approved by the Secretary shall be exempt from testing requirements.

D. For Markets or Auctions.
(1) Upon entering the market or auction an identification approved by the Department shall be affixed to each equine by the market operator and maintained by him until it leaves the premises.
(2) Equines accompanied by a test record acceptable to the Department, indicating a negative test for equine infectious anemia performed within the past 12 months, shall be penned separately from other equines in the market or auction. The test record shall be in the possession of the market operator.
(3) All equines that have entered a market or auction shall meet one of the following requirements before leaving the premises:
(a) Proof acceptable to the Department shall be presented to the market or auction operator that the equine has been found negative to an official test for equine infectious anemia made within 12 months before the sale.
(b) A blood sample shall be taken from the equine by an accredited veterinarian and the sample submitted to a Department laboratory within 24 hours for equine infectious anemia testing. The purchaser shall acknowledge in writing that the equine is to be held at the destination given by him until negative results are reported. The market operator shall be responsible for:
(i) Obtaining the complete name and address of each buyer together with the specific destination of the equine;
(ii) Having an accredited veterinarian at the market to take blood samples from these equines; and
(iii) Any costs incurred for this testing.
(c) Equines meeting neither of the above two requirements shall be identified as a slaughter equine in a manner approved by the Secretary and shall be sold for slaughter only, either directly to an approved slaughter establishment or to a Maryland licensed livestock dealer with facilities approver under Sec. E, below. Equines designated for slaughter under this paragraph shall be slaughtered within 15 days.

E. Exemptions. Slaughter equines purchased in Maryland or in another state by Maryland licensed livestock dealers and assembled in Maryland before shipment to an approved market or slaughter establishment are exempt from testing requirements. This exemption shall apply only to properly identified equines that are kept separate and apart from other equines on a premises previously approved by the Secretary and are not held over 15 days before shipment. The type identification used shall be approved or specified by the Secretary.

F. Retest of Reactors. A horse reported as a reactor on an initial test may be retested one time by a State or federal veterinarian before affixing a permanent identification on the animal.

G. Quarantine of Exposed Animals. If the reactor shows clinical evidence of equine infectious anemia or an epidemiological investigation so indicates, all horses on the premises where the clinical reactor is found will be quarantined and movement allowed only after a negative test. During the period when biting insects are present, a second negative test will be required in not less than 60 days from the date of the removal of the reactor from the quarantined premises.

H. Cost of Tests. As to tests made in Department laboratories, a charge of $4 will be paid to the Department for each agar gel immunodiffusion (Coggins) sample received. Samples will be run only when submitted by an accredited veterinarian. The accredited veterinarian shall be responsible for the laboratory fee.

.04 Violation of Regulations.
Any person, firm, or corporation which violates these regulations is subject to the penalties provided for in the Agriculture Article, Sec. 12-101, 12-102, and 12-103, Annotated Code of Maryland.

Reviewed by AAHS in October 2001.

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