University of Vermont AAHS

August 1997, Vol. VIII, Number 2

 Table of Contents
 NEISS 1997 Horse Related Injuries
 World Wide Web and Equestrian Information
 AMEA Speakers Available
 Performance Standards for Body Protectors
 Horseback Riding in Excessive Heat
 Flying Doctors of America
 USPC Safety Committee Job Description
 Safety Committees of Horse Organizations
 National Monument Employees Required to Use Protective Headgear

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NEISS 1997 Horse Related Injuries

Part of Body Injured

  79-82      %   87-91     %    92-96      %   TOTAL      %
Trunk 44819 26.7 85304 29.9 114390 33.8 244513 30.9
U Extrem 46128 27.5 69698 24.5 81151 24.0 196977 24.9
L Extrem 41951 24.9 65208 22.9 68224 20.2 175383 22.2
Head 31030 18.5 51146 18.0 60550 17.9 142727 18.0
Neck 3230 1.9 3823 1.3 8263 2.4 15316 1.9
25-50 % 454 0.3 8914 3.1 4281 1.3 13649 1.7
All Body 74 0.0 814 0.3 1852 0.5 2740 0.3
Unknown 276
Known 167686
Total 167962

Type of Injury

79-82 % 87-91 % 92-96 % Total %
Contusion/Abrasion 64225 38.3 93766 32.9 102576 30.2 260567 32.9
Fracture 42329 25.2 80348 28.7 99585 29.3 222262 28.1
Sprain/Strain 27031 16.1 48326 16.9 55460 16.3 130816 16.5
Laceration 16564 9.9 25683 9.0 28766 8.5 71013 9.0
Concussion 6154 3.7 10044 3.5 11612 3.4 27810 3.5
Internal Injury 1255 0.7 7990 2.8 12800 3.8 22045 2.8
Other 1810 1.1 4492 1.6 11442 3.4 17744 2.2
Dislocation 3624 2.2 6234 2.2 6501 1.9 16359 2.1
Hemotoma 1928 1.1 3260 1.1 4045 1.2 9233 1.2
All others had less than 1% incidence.
Head Injuries
Year 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996
Head Injuries 17.50% 17.82% 17.92% 16.88% 17.99% 18.69% 17.72%
Concussion 2.05% 4.30% 3.66% 3.49% 3.53% 4.31% 1.95%
Ages of Persons Injured
Year 78-82 % 87-91 % 92-96 % Total %
Unk 0 0.0 112 0.5 132 0.0 244 0.0
0-4 3318 2.0 5111 1.8 7301 2.2 15730 2.0
5-14 45504 27.1 59513 20.9 68421 20.2 173438 21.9
15-24 56185 33.5 70454 24.7 70851 20.9 197490 24.9
25-44 49570 29.6 116873 41.0 134389 39.65 300832 38.0
45-64 11422 6.8 27715 9.7 52561 15.5 91698 11.6
65+ 1685 1.0 5352 1.9 5808 1.7 12845 1.6
Total 167684
Place of Accident
Place/Year 79-82 % 97-91 % 92-96 % Total %
Home 40557 30.2 75492 42.3 73320 42.1 189369 38.9
Sports 47129 35.! 42508 23.8 54112 31.1 143749 29.5
Farm 28240 21.0 35681 20.0 20205 11.6 84126 17.3
Public 11274 8.4 19597 11.0 22604 13.0 53475 11.0
Street 5222 3.9% 4574 2.6 2721 1.6 12517 2.6
School 1774 1.3 675 0.4 1066 0.6 3515 0.7
Total 134196
Home/Sports Injuries by Year
Year 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996
% Home 29.8 26.6 21.9 23.0 20.3 22.7 20.7
% Sports 14.2 16.1 15.1 15.2 15.8 18.5 15.7
Injuries by Gender and Year

79-82 % 87-91 % 92-96 Total %
Male 64964 38.8 123631 43.4 141021 41.5 329616 41.6
Female 102612 61.2 161500 56.6 198399 58.5 462511 58.4
Total 167576

NEISS has provided its figures on horse related injuries for 14 years divided into 1979- 1982. and the two five year periods 1987-1991 and 1992-1996. NEISS stopped recording horse related injuries in 1983 and did not resume until 1987.


Injuries by Year
1990 74349
1991 71490
1992 73685
1993 68517
1994 71248
1995 65696
1996 60316

Preliminary conclusions:

1. The total number of injuries have had an irregular decrease but show the greatest decrease in 1996.

2. The percent of head injuries have had very small changes.

3. Concussions have been essentially unchanged, but there has been a decrease in 1996.

4. The injured between the ages 5-14 and 15-24 years have decreased in the percent of total injuries in each time period while the ages 25-44 and 45-64 years have shown an increase in the percent of total injuries in the same time periods.

5. The gender difference in the percent of accidents show a decrease in the percent of female injuries from 1979-1982 with a corresponding increase in the male injuries. Females had 61.8% of the injuries in 1990 but this had decreased to 54.7% by 1996.

6. In the location involved the percent of injured at "home" have had an increase since 1979-82, but have not risen in the past five years. The percent of injuries in "sport" after a decline in 1987-1991 have increased in the last five years.

National Electronic Surveillance System
Consumer Product Safety Commission
National Information Clearing House
Washington, DC 20207

NEISS Horse Related Injuries Editorial Comment

Protective headgear does not appear to have reduced the percent of head injuries, but the decrease has been in the total number of injuries. If 1996 can be considered the beginning of a trend, concussion with head injury may have decreased. The ages of those injured has shown the greatest change with youth and young adults decreasing their percent of injuries. Persons in the ages 25-44 years after an initial increase in 1987-1992 did not continue the increase in 1992-1996 of their percent of horse related injuries. The ages over 45 years have shown the greatest percent increase in injuries. This may show that youth and young adults follow the rules of safety and accident prevention, while the older riders remain bound by tradition.

Sports which should provide role models by their use of protective headgear and concern for safety, have shown a percent increase in injuries. One cannot wonder if the mandatory use of protective headgear in organized events during part of the years of 1989-1992 might have resulted in the lower number of injuries. Females have reduced their percent of injuries from 1979-1982, but this decrease has not continued in the time spans 1987-91 to 1992-96. (See AMEA News, November 1996, November 1995, February 1994, November 1992.)

Doris Bixby Hammett, MD

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There are probably over 100,000 sites on the World Wide Web devoted exclusively or primarily to horses and horsemanship. One can find information on almost any equine topic of interest by using one of the standard search engines, such as Yahoo, Excite, Infoseek or Lycos. Simply input the key word or words and be prepared to wade through a large number of responses, arranged in some sort of order by relevancy to the inquiry.

Hay.Net, is the largest site to provide links to other horse sites. There you will find links to hundreds of horse sites organized, described and kept up to date. Hay.Net is the first place to look for a good horse site.

Another good source of sites is The Horseman's Advisor, This site contains helpful articles about horses as well as links to dozens of other horse sites.

Special Sites:

The American Association for Horsemanship Safety, contains horsemanship safety articles, information on laws and legal liability relating to horses, and back issues of the AMEA News.

The American Riding Instructors Association and American Riding Instruction Certification Program, , lists dates of their annual seminar, dates of certification testing and a roster of certified instructors.

Equestrian Athletics, , is a monthly newsletter providing equestrians with exercise and sport science information.

Horse Country, , carries American Medical Equestrian Association articles.

If you know of others that would be of specific interest to the readers of the AMEA NEWS concerning the human in the horse activities, please contact the AMEA e-mail address

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The American Medical Equestrian Association seeks to increase the equestrian community's awareness of what is happening in horse-related injuries, what we know about prevention, and what each person and organization can do to increase safety in its horse activity. The members of the AMEA are well qualified to speak on these equestrian topics. Although subject topics are suggested, the speakers can arrange subjects that correlate with the program being given.

Organizations that are members of the AMEA have an AMEA speaker available without honorarium for one meeting during the year, although the speaker may request expenses. All speakers are available by private contact. If you are a member of the AMEA and are willing to participate in the speakers bureau, please contact the AMEA. If you are not a member of the AMEA and wish to work for safety and accident prevention through public presentations, we invite you to join the AMEA and we will place you on the speakers data base.

TOPIC                                    SPEAKER                        LOCATION
Legal/equestrian                     Angelique Ellerton               Calgary, Alb
Injury Prevention                    Robert Stanton, MD              Fairfield, CT
Knee Injuries                        Robert Stanton, MD              Fairfield, CT
Crisis Counseling                    Michael G. Dempsey, DO           New York, NY
Musculoskeletal Rehab                Michael C. Dempsey, DO           New York, NY
Overuse injuries                     Michael C. Dempsey, DO           New York, NY
Traumatic Neuro Injury               Michael C. Dempsey, DO           New York, NY
Neurological Concerns                Pieter Kark, MD                   Manlius, NY
Equestrian Helmet Certification      Thomas C. Augherton                McLean, VA
Safety Concerns in Dressage          Kristjna Bulas, MD                Roanoke, VA
Instructor/Coach Qualifications      Johanna Harris             Black Mountain, NC
Lessons - 15 Years of USPC           Doris Bixby Hammett, MD       Waynesville, NC
The Safety Committee                 Doris Bixby Hammett, MD       Waynesville, NC
Safety in Equestrian Activities      Julie Ballard, MD                 Atlanta, GA
Olympic Experience in Reducing Risk  Julie Ballard, MD                 Atlanta, GA
Risk Management in Schools/Camps     Betty Bennett-Talbot          Lake Placid, FL
Equestrian Injury of the Foot        James R. Ingram, D0            Clearwater, FL
Orthopedic subject                   James R. Ingram, DO            Clearwater, FL
Safety Programs in Equestrian Orgs   David McLain, MD               Birmingham, AL
USCTA Safety Study                   David McLain, MD               Birmingham, AL
Preventing Accidents by Anticipating Francisca Lytle, MD               Lebanon, TN
Preventing Injury by Exercise        Francisca Lytle, MD               Lebanon, TN
Planning Event Medical Coverage      J.W. Thomas Byrd, MD            Nashville, TN
Steps for Equestrian Safety          J.W. Thomas Byrd, MD            Nashville, TN
Equestrian Safety and Insurance      Joe Carr                        Lexington, KY
Farm Inspections                     Joe Carr                        Lexington, KY
Riding Safety                        Joe Carr                        Lexington, KY
Head Injury in Equestrian Sports     William H. Brooks, MD           Lexington, KY
Spine Injury in Equestrian Sports    William H. Brooks, MD           Lexington, KY
Choosing a First Horse               Jane Kellerman                Waynesville, OH
Finding a Safe instructor            Jane Kellerman                Waynesville, OH
Instructor Certification             Jane Kellerman                Waynesville, OH
Making Your Lessons Safer            Jane Kellerman                Waynesville, OH
Riding for the Disabled              Jane Kellerman                Waynesville, OH
Legal Input--Committees/Publications Julie Fershtman             Bingham Farms, MI
Finding Safety-Oriented Instructor   Jessica Jahiel                      Savoy, IL
Horse Selection for Instruction      Jessica Jahiel                      Savoy, IL
Sensible Riding: Avoiding Accidents  Jessica Jahiel                      Savoy, IL
Safe Showing: Before, During & After Jessica Jahiel                      Savoy, IL
Barn Safety                          Jessica Jahiel                      Savoy, IL
Handling Horses Responsibly          Jessica Jahiel                      Savoy, IL
Risk Reduction                       Jessica Jahiel                      Savoy, IL
Safety in Horse Management           Jessica Jahiel                      Savoy, IL
Eye Injury in Equestrian Activities  Mitch M. Porias, DO                Houston, TX
Glasses in Equestrian Sports         Mitch M. Porias, DO                Houston, TX
How to Present Safety to Students    Jan Dawson                        Fentress, TX
Preparing for an Emergency           Jan Dawson                        Fentress, TX
Qualities in a Riding Instructor     Jan Dawson                        Fentress, TX
Riding Instructor Liability          Jan Dawson                        Fentress, TX
The Dynamics of a Fall               Jan Dawson                        Fentress, TX
What Constitutes Negligence          Jan Dawson                        Fentress, TX
Rodeo Inflicted Nerve Injuries       James W. Watson, MD           Fort Collins, CO Neurosurgical subject arranged       James W Watson, MD            Fort Collins, CO
Medical Care at Equestrian Events    William Lee, MD                   Carefree, AZ
Barn Safety                          Robert Wilson, MD                   Peoria, AZ
Medical Concerns for Polo            Madison F. Richardson, MD      Los Angeles, CA
Safely in Polo                       Madison F Richardson, MD       Los Angeles, CA
The Polo Experience                  Madison F. Richardson, MD      Los Angeles, CA
Hazard Control specific to group     Mark Fredricksen                     Hemet, CA
Loss Prevention specific to group    Mark Fredricksen                     Hemet, CA
Mental Health Aspects                Joseph D. Fama                   San Bruno, CA
Occupational Medicine: arranged      Bruce E. Thompson, MD              Oakland, CA

Contact the AMEA office for specific lead times required by speakers and information on how to contact them

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University of Tennessee
Sports Biomedical Impact Research Laboratory

Horse sports and horseback riding are sports with intrinsic hazards. It is recognized that it is not possible to write a body protector performance standard that will result in products that can protect against injury or death in all accidents. It is also recognized that serious injury or death can result from both low-energy and high-energy impact, even when body protectors are worn. It is further recognized that protective body protectors must be acceptable to the user and to the regulating associations or agencies requiring their use. Acknowledging these limitations, this specification was developed using resources in medical, scientific, engineering, human factors and biomedical fields.

This specification incorporates many aspects of other recognized body protector performance standards. This specification draws from work done by others where appropriate for this specification.

The whole circumference of the torso shall be covered by the body protector. The bottom edge should be not less than 1 inch below the rib cage anteriorly, and should reach the level of the pelvis laterally. Posteriorly the edge should be not less that 6 inches below the level of the top of the pelvis (iliac crest) on the average adult. The top and the back of the protector should just reach the level of the seventh cervical vertebra. The front of the protector should reach close to the top of the sternum and at least cover the second rib. The body protector and shoulder protector if equipped should between them cover the lateral 75% of the clavicle.

The body protectors and shoulder protectors shall be marked a size. The size is to be determined by three dimensions of the persons the protector will fit. The dimensions are chest girth, waist girth, and waist to waist over the shoulder length.

The performance requirement requires the vest be capable of meeting the standard at any temperature between 0 and 122 degrees F. These standards are: shock attenuation, penetration and deformation, and closures.

Instructions accompanying the body protector must include at least the following information:

A warning concerning improper cleaning agents, paint, or other factors affecting body protector integrity or performance, or both.

Notification that the body protector meets the minimum requirements of the ASTM performance specification for horse sports and horseback riding provided it has not been reconditioned or altered in any way.

Instructions to replace if damaged, or if condition is in doubt.

Mr. Dave Halstead
University of Tennessee
PO Box 8600
Knoxville, TN 37996
phone 423-974-2070.

University of Tennessee

This standard for the body protector surpasses the protection of present body protectors available to horseback riders. Persons who have examined the prototype state that the flexibility is equal and the fit superior to the present Beta vests. The standard has been submitted to the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) for approval and inclusion in the ASTM standards. The ASTM membership is reviewing, commenting and voting on the standard at this time. It is expected that the vest will be available in the near future. If you have questions or comments, the contact is Mr. Dave Halstead, above.

Doris Bixby Hammett, MD

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Many areas of the country suffer in high temperatures. The rider needs to plan means by which horseback riding can continue. Two aspects of riding must be addressed: the rider and the horse, although the same recommendations may apply to both.

Heat illness is a product of an interaction of activity, environmental and biological factors. Hydration is the most important element in preventing heat illness. Water requirements are not reduced by training or acclimatization. Thirst is well known to be an inadequate measure of fluid needs. In order to avoid dehydration, riders must drink beyond their thirst, and be made aware of the need to (1) drink adequately, (2) rest periodically in a cool environment when possible, (3) not ride when ill and avoid medication (4) no ethanol prior to and during the activity. A ready means of cooling should be available at every site where heat injury might occur.

See AMEA NEWS August 1995:

Kitty Ferguson, MD, member of the AMEA and USPC Safety Committee, reports the steps she takes to meet the challenges of excessive heat. She lives in the Mohave Desert in Southern California. She states the area averages at least 100 days of temperatures over 100 degrees every year with about a month of 110-120 degrees. Dr. Ferguson reports:

"We wear hats any time we are out in the sun. Keeping direct sun off the skin and head are very important parts of keeping cool. I ride in a Troxel schooling helmet with large vent holes and an oversized brim. I ride in one of my husband's old white cotton long sleeved dress shirts for sun protection. We encourage shirts loose and tails out, feeling the cooling outweighs aesthetics or the risk of the shirt getting caught. Very light weight cotton schooling tights are extremely unflattering but much cooler. Everything I wear is light colored. I wear part canvas HeelsDown boots and use leather leggings only while actually on the horse.

"I wet my helmet liner, my old shirt and my horse just before and sometimes during rides. We use cold packs in helmets and clothing and freeze protective vests for cooling too. The neckerchiefs with the crystals soaked in ice water work well too. We hose down Pony Clubbers and their horses about every 15-20 minutes if they ride in the heat of the day. (We follow the hydration rules for the rider.) Most effective of all, I have lights in my arena so I can ride at night when it is only 99 degrees.

"We go to a lot of effort to deal with heat, but the one thing we do not do is go without helmets. If it is too hot for headgear it is too hot to ride! Removing the helmet would not help much toward cooling if all the other things we do weren't enough."

Doris Bixby Hammett, MD
Secretary, American Medical Equestrian Association
PO Box 1049
Waynesville, NC 28786
FAX 704-456-3779

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The Flying Doctors of America (FDoA) announced their first equestrian mission to Guatemala March 28-April 6 in which medical care was brought to four remote villages in the jungle region of North Guatemala. These villages could only reached by horseback. This trip was not recommended for anyone who had not ridden horses.

The Flying Doctors mission is to help people to help others. They are committed to helping physicians, dentists, other health professionals and support volunteers care for people who would otherwise go untreated. Support volunteers serve as translators, team leaders, photographers, and healthcare assistants.

Flying Doctors was founded by Allan Gathercoal in 1990 and is a non-profit, non- sectarian, non-political organization that professionally organizes affordable and tax- deducible short-term medical mercy missions. In the past five years, FDoA has grown to an organization flying monthly medical missions to Mexico, South and Central America, the Dominican Republic, India, and Thailand, and has flown over 80 missions and given free medical care to over 50,000 children, women, and men. An FDoA medical team may treat 200-250 people per day.

Allan Gathercoal, President, invited the American Medical Equestrian Association to co- sponsor an equestrian mission with the FDoA. For more information contact Flying Doctors of America, 1951 Airport Road, Dekalb-Peachtree Airport, Atlanta, GA 30341, Telephone 770/451-3068 FAX 770/457-6302.

Web Page e-mail

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Broad Scope: to promote leadership and guidance in the field of human safety in the United States Pony Clubs and to promote safety practices while riding and working with horses. The Chairman reports to the Vice President of Instruction who in turn reports to and serves at the pleasure of the Board of Governors.

1. To work closely with other USPC instruction committees to ensure coherence and consistency in all of their work.

2. To work with the V.P. Instruction to set goals for the committee and to see these goals through to completion.

3. To develop a three-year plan and to review and revise it regularly.

4. To evaluate all safety related instructional materials used by USPC and to work with the Curriculum Standards Committee to develop new materials as they are needed.

5. To evaluate, with a yearly summary, the safety of USPC programs based on the accident reports from DC's and others in charge.

6. To respond to problems and concerns of safety throughout Pony Club.

7. To maintain a relationship with leaders in the field outside of Pony Club.

8. To continue to monitor and participate in, if possible, the establishment of industry standards for riding equipment.

9. To follow all USPC policies for Instruction Committees (See the Pony Club Handbook.)

10. To respond n a timely manner to all communications about committee work.

11. To submit to the V.P. Instruction all proposed changes in committee membership prior to the full Board Meeting.

12. To assist with instruction programs at Festival.

Qualifications: The Chairman should have thorough understanding of and practical experience with human safety practices. He/she should also have a broad Pony Club experience and a good understanding of how USPC works. The Chairman should be well organized and committed to the purposes of the committee. He/she should be conscientious about initiating and responding to communications to and from all levels. Committee members should be experienced in safety practices and committed to fulfilling committee responsibilities. All should be active Pony Club volunteers.

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The American Medical Equestrian Association recommends that horse organizations have a committee which job description includes review of horse-related accidents and injuries from participants in its horse activities. The committees for 1997 are:

American Endurance Ride Conference
Bob Morris, Chairman, Boise, ID
R. A. Beecher, DVM, Cascade, IA
Courtney Hart, Los Gatos, CA

American Riding Instructor Certification Program
Julie I. Fershtman, Co Chair, Bingham Farms, MI
Gayle Lampe , Co Chair, Fulton, MO
Cynthia Bishop, Mt. Vernon, MO
Myles Neff, Ocala, FL
Alexi Bonifield, Nevada City, CA
Cathey J. Norton, Santa Fe, NM
Mollie Esterson, Seaford, DE
Dr. Jessica Jahiel, Savoy, IL.

North American Horsemen's Association
Linda Liestman, Chairman, Paynesville, MN
John Hunt, Rolling Meadows, IL
Fred Whittet, Frankfort, KY
Lowell Osvog, Minneapolis, MN
Debi Ball, Omaha, NE
Jim Mitchell, Ocala, FL

Horsemanship Safety Association
Steve Bennett, Chairman, Lake Placid, FL
Judi Whipple, Barre, VT
Susan Miranda, Camarda, CA
Timothy Cleary, Boulder, CO
Nora Culbertson, New Port Ritchey, FL
Paul Novograd, New York, NY.

National Steeplechase Association
Langhorne Bond, Chairman, Pittsboro, NC.

North American Trail Ride Conference
David Fling. Chairman, Apple Valley CA.

United States Combined Training Association
Julie Ballard, MD, Atlanta, GA
Dorothy Trapp Crowell, Lexington, KY
Jim Graham, Florence, AL
William Lee, MD, Carefree, AZ
David McLain, MD, Birmingham, AL
Sally Nunneley, MD, San Antonio, TX
Francis Rath, Great Falls, VA
Ritchard Temple, Rolling Medows, IL
Mona Weiss, Springfield, OH.

United States Polo Association
Howard Bierman, Beverly Hills, CA
George C. Haas, New York, NY
Glen Holden, Los Angeles, CA
Merle Jenkins, Troy, MI
Tim Nice, Mayfield Heights, OH
Norman Ringer, Modesto, CA
Karen Springstead, Los Angeles, CA
Guy Vise, Jr., Jackson, MS
Tolbert Wilkinson, MD, San Antonio, TX
Trent Smith, Columbus, OH.

United States Pony Clubs
William H. Brooks, MD, Chairman, Lexington, KY
Margaret Taylor, Old Chatham, NY
Katherine Ferguson, MD, Ridgecrest, CA
Betsy Reeves, Groton, MA
Anne Quattrocchi, Lexington, KY.

The AMEA commends these organizations and the members of the safety committees for their concern for the participants in their activities. Other organizations which have safety committees and are not listed, please contact the AMEA with the names and address of the members for 1997.

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Park horses, whether owned or leased by the National Park Service, are government property. The regulations and guidelines that apply to other government property apply equally to horses. In addition, the use of horses involves unusual and special hazards requiring specific knowledge and skills to handle them safely. Horses also require individual attention and have needs different from other types of property. For these reasons, the following guidelines will be followed for the horse operation at John Day Fossil Beds National Monument.

All prospective stock handlers and riders will demonstrate to the coordinator their familiarity with stock and their ability to perform safely any activities involving horses. The livestock coordinator will determine whether the skill and knowledge of the person is sufficient to perform the horse-related activities. Horses are to be used in the performance of official duties in the same manner and with the same restrictions involving the use of a government motor vehicle.

Proper protective head gear, specifically designed for equestrian use, will be purchased by the NPS for each individual authorized and desiring to ride. Headgear will not be shared due to its need to fit tightly and firmly and be adjusted to each specific head. Headgear will be stored in the tack room. Such protective head gear will always be put on and properly adjusted before any authorized employee mounts a horse. It will remain on the employee until the employee dismounts the horse. Chin straps will always be buckled or otherwise attached and worn snugly to ensure the headgear will remain on the head in its designed location in the event of a fall. Any headgear sustaining an impact will be returned to the manufacturer for inspection or replacement.

Only smooth-soled boots, or boots with soles specifically designed for stirrups (e.g. mini- vibrams with continuous smooth edges) will be worn while riding.

After each use all tack is to be cleaned and wiped dry. If any tack is damaged it should be repaired by the rider as soon as possible, or if the repair is complex, reported to the livestock coordinator.

A copy of these guidelines shall be posted in the tackroom. Each employee authorized to ride shall read and sign the guidelines.

James F Hammett
May 1997

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