NOTE: Colorado has no veterinarian's, farrier's or breeder's lien. However, the Colorado agistors' lien clearly applies to residential veterinary or breeding services.
TITLE 38. PROPERTY--REAL AND PERSONAL LIENS
ARTICLE 20. LIEN ON PERSONAL PROPERTY
PART 1. PROCEDURES
§ 38-20-101. Definitions
As used in this article, unless the context otherwise requires:
(1) "Customer" means any person who:
(a) Hires a molder to fabricate, cast, or otherwise prepare a die, tool, mold, form, or pattern for the purpose of manufacturing, assembling, casting, fabricating, or otherwise making a product; or
(b) Provides a molder with a die, tool, mold, form, or pattern for the purpose of manufacturing, assembling, casting, fabricating, or otherwise making a product.
(2) "Mold" means a die, tool, mold, form, or pattern.
(3) "Molder" means any person who fabricates, casts, or otherwise prepares or uses a die, tool, mold, form, or pattern for the purpose of manufacturing, assembling, casting, fabricating, or otherwise preparing a product. "Molder" includes, but is not limited to, a tool or die maker. A molder shall not be deemed to be a warehouseman as defined in section 4-7-102, C.R.S.
(4) "Rent temporary shelter" or "rent temporary trailer space" means shelter or trailer space that is rented for a fee for a period of time not exceeding one month, but excluding month to month tenancies that have been in effect at least four months.
§ 38-20-102. Lien of agistor and landlord
(1)(a) Any ranchman, farmer, feeder, agistor, herder of cattle, livery stable keeper, veterinarian, or other person to whom horses, mules, asses, cattle, sheep, hogs, dogs, cats, or other domestic animals are entrusted for the purpose of feeding, herding, pasturing, keeping, ranching, boarding, or medical care shall have a lien, which shall be superior to all other liens, upon such horses, mules, asses, cattle, sheep, hogs, dogs, cats, or other domestic animals for the amount that may be due for such feeding, herding, pasturing, keeping, ranching, boarding, or medical care and for all costs incurred in enforcing such lien. The provisions of this subsection (1) shall not apply to stolen livestock.
(b) If the agistor or feeder complies with the provisions of section 38-20-103 and the domestic animals referred to in paragraph (a) of this subsection (1) are sold, exchanged, or otherwise disposed of to another for slaughter or packinghouse purposes from the premises of the lienholder by anyone other than the lienholder acting on his own behalf, the lien created by this subsection (1) shall continue and attach to the proceeds received or receivable therefrom. This lien shall also be superior to all other liens.
(2) The keeper of any hotel, motel, inn, or boardinghouse or any other person who rents temporary shelter to transient guests shall have a lien upon the personal property of such transient guests found upon the premises for the amount that may be due for lodging and boarding services rendered and for all costs incurred in enforcing such lien, and such liens shall apply to the personal property of transient guests who rent temporary trailer space in any trailer court or auto court in this state. The provisions of this section shall not apply to motor vehicles owned by such transient guests parked on the premises of such hotel, motel, inn, or boardinghouse or to stolen property.
(3)(a) Any person who rents furnished or unfurnished rooms or apartments for the housekeeping purposes of his tenants, as well as the keeper of a trailer court who rents trailer space, shall have a lien upon the tenant's personal property that is then on or in the rental premises. The value of the lien shall be for the amount of unpaid board, lodging, or rent, and for reasonable costs incurred in enforcing the lien, not including attorney fees. The lien shall be upon the household furniture, goods, appliances, and other personal property of the tenant and members of his household then being upon the rental premises, but exclusive of small kitchen appliances, cooking utensils, beds, bedding, necessary wearing apparel, personal or business records and documents, and the personal effects of the tenant and the members of his household.
(b) In the event the tenant has vacated the premises, the landlord shall allow the tenant and members of his household access to the premises at any reasonable time and in a reasonable manner to remove any property not covered by the lien.
(c) In the event the tenant has not vacated the premises, the landlord or his agent may enter upon the premises at any reasonable time for the purpose of asserting the lien and, in a reasonable manner and peaceably, the landlord may assert dominion over the personal property covered by the lien. Assertion of the lien provided in this section in a manner which substantially interferes with the tenant's right to reasonably occupy and enjoy the premises is unlawful and shall cause forfeiture of the lien and shall give rise to an action for damages.
§ 38-20-103. Agistor's contract to be filed
All contracts, or copies thereof, made by the owner of any animals, such
as sheep, bovine cattle, horses, or any other kind, with any other person, including a
feeder, for the herding or caring for the same for pay, or on shares, or in any other
manner may be filed with the county clerk and recorder of the county where the owners or
either of them reside, if they reside in the state, and, if the owners or either of them
do not reside in the state, the copies may be filed with the county clerk and recorder of
the county in which the contract was made. When such copies are so filed they shall be
notice to everyone of the contents of such contracts and of the legal effect thereof.
§ 38-20-202. Definitions
As used in this part 2, unless the context otherwise requires:
(1) "Abandoned" means having forsaken entirely or neglected or refused to pay for feeding, herding, pasturing, keeping, ranching, boarding, or medical care for any livestock held by an agistor, its owner, or an owner's agent.
(2) "Agent" means any person who contracts for the feeding, herding, pasturing, keeping, ranching, or boarding of livestock or the provision of medical care for livestock.
(3) "Agistor" means any rancher, farmer, feeder, herder of cattle, livery stable keeper, veterinarian, or other person to whom livestock are entrusted by the owner for feeding, herding, pasturing, keeping, ranching, or boarding, or providing medical care.
(4) "Board" means the state board of stock inspection commissioners, created in section 35-41-101, C.R.S.
(5) "Continuing payment" means charges that are due and owing to an agistor and do not have a definite termination date.
(6) "Livestock" means horses, mules, asses, cattle, sheep, hogs, and alternative livestock as defined in section 35-41.5-102(1), C.R.S.
(7) "Public livestock market" means a public livestock market licensed pursuant to article 55 of title 35, C.R.S.
§ 38-20-203. Agistor's lien
(1) An agistor shall have a lien upon the livestock entrusted to its care for any amount that may be due for feeding, herding, pasturing, keeping, ranching, or boarding such livestock, for medical care provided to such livestock, and for all costs incurred in enforcing such lien, including attorney fees. The provisions of this section shall not apply to stolen livestock.
(2) An agistor's lien shall be effective for the entire period during which the livestock are held by the agistor, and if the livestock referenced in subsection (1) of this section are sold, exchanged, or otherwise disposed of from the premises of the lienor by anyone other than the lienor acting on his or her own behalf or the lienor's agent, the lien created by this section shall continue and shall attach to the proceeds received or receivable from such disposition. To the extent an agistor's lien remains effective, such lien shall be superior to all other liens.
§ 38-20-204. Agistor's lien--filing requirement
An agistor's lien created pursuant to this part 2 shall be filed with the secretary of state or the county clerk where the livestock are located. The filing of an agistor's lien shall constitute notice of the contents and legal effect of the lien.
§ 38-20-205. Foreclosure
(1)(a) If any charges for which a lien has been filed pursuant to section 38- 20-204 are not paid not more than thirty days after the date such charges are due, the lienor or the lienor's assignee may file a foreclosure action in the county or district court of the county or city and county in which:
(I) The contract between the lienor and the owner of the livestock was entered into;
(II) The owner resided at the time the foreclosure action commenced; or
(III) The livestock are located.
(b) For purposes of this subsection (1), if the contract between the owner and the lienor provides for continuing payments, such payments may be deemed to be due after the default of any installment or payment, at the option of the lienor.
(2) If a lienor sells or otherwise disposes of an owner's livestock without substantially complying with this article, such owner may recover from the lienor the value of the livestock less the lienor's cost of caring for such livestock, but in no event less than one hundred dollars.
(3) Nothing in this article shall require a lienor to commence a judicial action to foreclose on an agistor's lien if the livestock is abandoned, as defined in section 38-20-207.
(4) With respect to any foreclosure action brought under this article, a copy of the complaint shall be provided to the board before it may be filed with a court. The failure to provide such copy is not jurisdictional but shall be required by a court. The complaint shall show:
(a) That the lienor performed a service for the livestock owner, entitling the lienor to a lien on the owner's livestock pursuant to section 38-20-203;
(b) That the service described in paragraph (a) of this subsection (4) was performed at the written or verbal request of the owner or owner's agent;
(c) A description of the livestock, including the age, color, sex, markings, scars, brands, earmarks, a statement of the lien's actual value, and, if known, the registration number upon which the lien is claimed. A livestock group of twenty or more may be identified by common and accepted industry practice.
(d) That a notice of demand has been provided to the owner or the owner's agent by certified mail at their last-known address, or if not known, that personal notice was provided pursuant to section 38-20-206(1)(a);
(e) An itemized list of the fair market value of the charges that are due and unpaid under the lien; and
(f) That a copy of the complaint has been provided to the board.
(5)(a) A court shall examine any complaint filed pursuant to this article without delay. If satisfactory, the court shall order the owner to show cause why the livestock should not be sold pursuant to the procedures in this article, which order shall include the date and time for a hearing. Such hearing shall be held not more than ten working days after the date of the issuance of the order.
(b) The court order set forth in paragraph (a) of this subsection (5) shall be served on the owner at least five days before the hearing date and shall inform such owner of:
(I) His or her right to appear and present testimony at the hearing;
(II) The fact that his or her failure to appear at the hearing may result in the entry of a judgment by default for the lien charges described in the complaint, the costs provided in this part 2, attorney's fees, and any other relief to which the plaintiff is entitled.
(6) If either party requests that the hearing date be delayed more than five days, the court, in its discretion and upon good cause shown, may require the requesting party to post bond. The bond amount shall be sufficient to pay the opposing party such amount as he or she may be entitled because of the delay. The bond shall be secured by two or more sureties, one corporate surety authorized to do business in this state, or a cash or property bond, whichever the court may approve.
§ 38-20-206. Sale of livestock--procedure
(1) A lienor who receives a judgment on an agistor's lien may proceed to sell such livestock necessary to satisfy the lien. The sale shall take place not more than forty-five days after entry of judgment at the nearest public livestock market in this state. In addition:
(a) The lienor shall provide notice to the owner at least fifteen days before any sale. The notice shall include the time and place of the sale and a description of the livestock to be sold. Such notice shall be served by:
(I) Publication in one newspaper published in the county of the lienor's residence; or
(II) Posting in three public places within the county of the lienor's residence and delivering a copy to the owner or the owner's agent. If a copy is to be delivered to the owner's agent and such agent does not reside in the county of the lienor's residence, a copy of the notice shall be published in a newspaper published in the county of the agent's residence, or, if no newspaper is published in such county, a copy shall be mailed to such agent's place of residence.
(b) The purchaser shall receive a transfer of the registration papers for the purchased livestock by the public livestock market and the pertinent organization or registry.
(c) The public livestock market shall:
(I) Pay to the agistor from the sale proceeds the reasonable cost of the foreclosure, notice, sale, and the reasonable and necessary charges incurred by the agistor for preserving, maintaining, feeding, boarding, pasturing, caring, and keeping the livestock up to the date of the sale. The reasonable cost of keeping the livestock up to the date of the sale shall not exceed five dollars per head per day.
(II) Forward the remainder of the sale proceeds and render any unsold livestock to the court for distribution to the owner or the owner's agent. If the owner and the owner's agent are not known and there are sale proceeds to be forwarded, such proceeds shall be returned to the board. The board shall deposit such proceeds in its estray fund and make a record of such deposit, identifying the livestock and stating the amount realized from the sale. The board shall pay proceeds from the estray fund to any secured party that has filed a lien against the livestock sold and has submitted a claim for payment to the board. Such payments shall be made only to the extent of the amount owed to the secured party. Such record shall be open to public inspection.
(2)(a) When livestock are in danger of serious and immediate decay or waste, or are likely to rapidly depreciate in value pending foreclosure proceedings, or where the keeping of such livestock will be attended with great expense, the lienor may, upon providing such notice as the court may require, apply to the court for an immediate sale. The court, in its discretion, may order that the livestock be sold and that the sale proceeds be deposited with the clerk of the court pending further order of such court.
(b) Upon receiving an application pursuant to paragraph (a) of this subsection (2), a court may, upon good cause shown, require the lienor to post bond for such amount as the defendant may be entitled for damages sustained in the event of wrongful foreclosure. Such bond shall be secured by two or more sureties, one corporate surety authorized to do business in this state, or a cash bond, whichever is approved by the court.
(3) The lienor may purchase the livestock and may bid all or any portion of the fair market value of the lien.
(4) When the livestock cannot be sold in one day, the sale may be continued on a day-to-day basis. Upon completion of the sale, the public livestock market shall file a bill of sale with the court that entered judgment of foreclosure. Such bill of sale shall include the amount for which each animal was sold and the name of each purchaser. The court shall record such bill of sale in its docket and shall preserve the original.
§ 38-20-207. Abandoned livestock--notice--disposition
(1) Livestock shall be presumed abandoned if:
(a) The owner or owner's agent has failed to contact the lienor within ten days after service of notice under section 38-20-206;
(b) The lienor, in good faith, has no reasonable grounds to believe that the owner does not intend to abandon the livestock; and
(c) The agistor has sent written notice of abandonment pursuant to the publication procedures in this article.
(2) The board shall care for and dispose of any abandoned livestock pursuant to section 35-44-112, C.R.S.
(3) After paying all expenses incurred, the board shall pay the agistor for the cost of herding or caring for such livestock, not to exceed the fair market value of the actual cost of such herding or caring or five hundred dollars per head, whichever is less.
(4)(a) Any surplus funds forwarded to the state board of stock inspection commissioners shall be deposited in the estray fund of said board in the manner described in section 38-20-206.
(b) If the owner of livestock presumed to be abandoned is found within three years after the date of the sale of such livestock, the net amount received from the sale shall be paid to the owner, less the following amounts, upon said owner proving ownership to the satisfaction of the board:
(I) A sum determined by the board, not to exceed ten dollars for each abandoned animal, to be retained by the state board of stock inspection commissioners;
(II) The amount of any judgment awarded the lienor; and
(III) Any amounts owed to a secured party that has filed a lien against the livestock presumed to be abandoned and submitted a claim to the board.
(c) A current livestock inspection certificate shall be prima facie evidence of ownership.
§ 38-20-208. Lien no bar
Nothing in this article shall prohibit a lienor, after the sale of livestock pursuant
to this article, from pursuing further action to fully satisfy a judgment on an agistor's
Amended in 1998.
Reviewed by AAHS in August 2001.
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