University of Vermont AAHS

EQUINE ACTIVITY STATUTES (EAS)

As of January 1, 2004

THE CAPSULE EVALUATION

*Only Alaska, California, Maryland, Nevada, New York and Pennsylvania have NOT enacted EAS.

*Courts apply the law of the state in which the accident happened.

*In broad terms the EAS limit the liability of certain persons and or entities related to an equine activity during which a participant was injured by an equine in an accident caused by one of the inherent risks associated with equines or an equine activity.

*While no EAS gives a specific laundry list of inherent risks some attempt to describe them in general terms.  Inherent risks are usually those risks, which the activity provider cannot, within reason, control.

*No court has ruled, and none is likely to, that an incompetent, untrained staff is an “inherent risk” within the meaning of an EAS.

*These statutes do not absolve either the amateur or the professional from the reasonable or professional duty to be careful.

REQUIREMENTS OF THE STATUTES

POSTING REQUIREMENT – This means a sign or signs placed where the people who need to see it are likely to see it.

NOTICE REQUIREMENT – This means a written notice, usually with specific wording, either in all contracts or in a release form.  THE EAS THAT REQUIRE IT WILL TELL YOU IN WHICH FORM IT GOES.

PENALTIES FOR FAILING TO POST OR INCLUDE NOTICE

No EAS lists the specific penalty if a posting and/or notice requirement is ignored.  However, that certainly does not mean that there would not be one.  The most likely scenario is that the court would make the EAS unavailable to the party wishing to benefit from it, that is the party who failed to meet the posting or notice requirement.  It is also possible that the court could invalidate the release form or contract that failed to contain the required notice.  The court, conceivably, could do both.

It is highly unlikely that any court would ignore a legislative requirement and levy no penalty.

WHICH STATE REQUIRES WHAT?

10 STATES have EAS that do not require signs or written notices.  If your operation or activity is in one of these you need do nothing to obtain the benefits offered by your statute:  Connecticut, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, New Hampshire, North Dakota, Oklahoma, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.

4 STATES require signs but not written notices:  Arkansas, Minnesota, New Jersey, New Mexico.  In these four, and only these four, the little sign is enough.

23 STATES require that the same language be posted on your property and appear in your written contracts:  Alabama, Colorado, Delaware, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Massachusetts, Michigan, Missouri, Mississippi. Nebraska, North Carolina, Rhode Island, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Vermont.  Copy your sign to your contracts.

2 STATES require that specified language appear either on a sign or in a written contract:  Florida and Maine.  Here you have a choice but smart money will put the mandatory language in both.  Now your goats can eat the sign and you are still covered.

3 STATES require that any release of liability form contain the mandatory language given by the particular statute:  Arizona, Oregon, Virginia.

2 STATES require notice in all contracts but do not require the posting of signs:  Ohio, West Virginia

“So, WHAT ARE YOU WAITING FOR?  You can ignore the Equine Activity Statute that exists in your state.  You are also free to sky dive without a parachute if you choose.  But, why would you want to do that?  The costs of obtaining the protection of these statutes is almost free and the inconvenience of obtaining protection is small. You don’t even need a lawyer.  It really is a no-brainer.  If in your state notice is required in addition to or instead of posting, then put the mandatory language in all your written contracts.”  Robert O. Dawson, Professor of Law

HOW TO MISINTERPRET AN EAS

1.      ALL THE EAS ARE ALIKE. – No they aren’t! A few are extremely similar.  A few are extremely different.  The few that have nearly identical wording will be interpreted by different courts, at different times, under different circumstances, always with the possibility of different results.  Many have small but critical differences.

2.      Because “inherent risks” are never specifically defined but some of the basic guidelines are alike, inherent risks are the same in all states.  Not so because courts are different and each case will be colored by its particular facts and situation. A common example of “inherent risks” follows:

The propensity of an animal to behave in ways that may result in injury, harm, or death, to persons on or around them; the unpredictability of the animal’s reaction to such things as sounds, sudden movement, and unfamiliar objects, persons, or other animals; certain hazards such as surface and subsurface conditions; collisions with other animals or objects; the potential or a participant to act in a negligent manner that may contribute to injury to the participant or others, such as failing to maintain control over the animal or not acting within his or her ability.

 An inherent risk usually means circumstances over which we have no control.  That may be different at different times and in different places.  It does not absolve the provider or sponsor of his or her reasonable or professional duty of care.  These statutes do not mean that now we can teach lessons or have shows in places that we could not before or under circumstances that we could not before.  They are not a blanket immunity from responsibility for actions and do not make it no longer necessary for us to think something through before doing it.  For example the student’s or competitor’s horse was stung by a bee.  An inherent risk?  The facility manager had noticed the hive a few feet from the door of the arena weeks before but had done nothing.  Still an inherent risk?

3.      THE EAS NOW MEAN THAT PERSONS AND ENTITIES COVERED BY THE EAS CAN NO LONGER BE HELD RESPONSIBLE FOR INJURIES CAUSED BY EQUINES EXCEPT AS PERMITTED BY THE “EXCEPTIONS” SECTION OF THE STATUTE.  I would not want to take those odds to Las Vegas.  Just as “inherent risks” have been left to considerable interpretation, so has much else.  Nowhere do these statutes appear to allow people to behave irresponsibly.  One may read the body of a statute one way or perhaps read the exceptions another.  Either way courts are requiring the same amount of responsible behavior since enactment of the EAS as before.  Now it is easier to deal with the result of unforeseen circumstances, of “inherent risks”.  However, it is still not possible to hand a horse to a novice, give the novice a quick explanation of “start, stop and steer” and then expect to have an easy defense if there is an accident.  It is also difficult to defend the use of untrained staff.  Guessing about training is dangerous.

 

4.      THE EXCEPTIONS TO THE LIMITATIONS OF LIABILITY ARE EASY TO READ AND MEAN EXACTLY WHAT THEY SAY.   Well, sort of, maybe. 

a.    The sections on tack and equipment can be used for product liability problems and go back to the manufacturer but they can also relate to maintenance, adjustment and fit, to the horse at the time of mounting and through out the ride or lesson.

b.    The sections relating to the determination of whether the equine provider has made a reasonable and prudent effort to determine whether this participant can safely participate in this activity, manage this particular equine, and whether (in one case) this particular equine can safely participate in this activity is the one that causes the most surprises.  Often some reliance on the participant’s own representations is permitted by the particular statute, but this kind of reliance can be extremely dangerous.

Many equine service providers will be willing to defend themselves by saying, “She told me she knew how to ride;”  “He said he hunted in Ireland;” and “Their mother told me they had taken lessons for years.”  This is a “participant’s own representation” of his experience and skill.  These same providers will later joke about these same customers, how badly they rode and how they knew immediately that the customer was really a beginner or lacked adequate foundation skills.  The customer often believes what he says.  He has no frame of reference.

A smart provider will adjust “the participants own representation” to what the provider truly believes to be more accurate and a reasonable and prudent assessment of the participant’s ability.  Of course that may take a bit more time.  The participant may have to frame of reference at all or it may be expressing wishful thinking.  If it is not practical to give a pre-ride skills test the safe approach is to treat all the customers initially as novices.  One can always move them up.  At least then you can be sure they have the foundation skills you want.

Anyway, a competent rider will have a good ride on Ole Dobbin, or any other horse, and you won’t have to face the aftermath of an accident you could not defend within the terms of the statute.

 

The excerpts that follow are offered for the sole purpose of demonstrating both the similarities and the diversity that exists between the Equine Activities Statutes.  This has been done to demonstrate the extreme risk one takes if one attempts to learn about the EAS by word of mouth, or worse, from a group of people who may be from different states

 

REMEMBER THAT KNOWING YOUR STATUTE AND MEETING ITS REQUIREMENTS MAY NOT BE ENOUGH.  IF YOU TRAVEL AND HAUL CUSTOMERS THE STATUTE THAT WILL APPLY AT THE TIME OF AN UNFORTUNATE ACCIDENT WILL BE THE STATUTE OF THE STATE IN WHICH THE ACCIDENT OCCURS.

DIVERSITY WITHIN THE STATUTES

A Few Examples

Arizona

(An unusual EAS)

§ 12 553. Limited liability of equine owners and owners of equine facilities;  exception;  definitions

 A. An equine owner or an agent of an equine owner who regardless of consideration allows another person to take control of an equine is not liable for an injury to or the death of the person if:

 1. The person has taken control of the equine from the owner or agent when the injury or death occurs.

 2. The person or the parent or legal guardian of the person if the person is under eighteen years of age has signed a release before taking control of the equine.

 3. The owner or agent has properly installed suitable tack or equipment or the person has personally tacked the equine with tack the person owned, leased or borrowed.  If the person has personally tacked the equine, the person assumes full responsibility for the suitability, installation and condition of the tack.

 4. The owner or agent assigns the person to a suitable equine based on a reasonable interpretation of the person's representation of his skills, health and experience with and knowledge of equines.

 B. Subsection A does not apply to an equine owner or agent of the equine owner who is grossly negligent or commits willful, wanton or intentional acts or omissions.

 C. An owner, lessor or agent of any riding stable, rodeo ground, training or boarding stable or other private property that is used by a rider or handler of an equine with or without the owner's permission is not liable for injury to or death of the equine or the rider or handler.

 D. Subsection C does not apply to an owner, lessor or agent of any riding stable, rodeo ground, training or boarding stable or other private property that is used by a rider or handler of an equine if either of the following applies:

 1. The owner, lessor or agent knows or should know that a hazardous condition exists and the owner, lessor or agent fails to disclose the hazardous condition to a rider or handler of an equine.

 2. The owner, lessor or agent is grossly negligent or commits willful, wanton or intentional acts or omissions.

 E. As used in this section:

 1. "Equine" means a horse, pony, mule, donkey or ass.

 2. "Release" means a document that a person signs before taking control of an equine from the owner or owner's agent and that acknowledges that the person is aware of the inherent risks associated with equine activities, is willing and able to accept full responsibility for his own safety and welfare and releases the equine owner or agent from liability unless the equine owner or agent is grossly negligent or commits willful, wanton or intentional acts or omissions.

Colorado

(f) "Inherent risks of equine activities" and "inherent risks of llama activities" means those dangers or conditions which are an integral part of equine activities or llama activities, as the case may be, including, but not limited to:

(I) The propensity of the animal to behave in ways that may result in injury, harm, or death to persons on or around them;

(II) The unpredictability of the animal's reaction to such things as sounds, sudden movement, and unfamiliar objects, persons, or other animals;

(III) Certain hazards such as surface and subsurface conditions;

(IV) Collisions with other animals or objects;

(V) The potential of a participant to act in a negligent manner that may contribute to injury to the participant or others, such as failing to maintain control over the animal or not acting within his or her ability.

[Exceptions]

[Liability not limited if the person who…]

(B) Provided the animal and failed to make reasonable and prudent efforts to determine the ability of the participant to engage safely in the equine activity or llama activity and determine the ability of the participant to safely manage the particular animal based on the participant's representations of his ability;

(II) Owns, leases, rents, or otherwise is in lawful possession and control of the land or facilities upon which the participant sustained injuries because of a dangerous latent condition which was known to the equine activity sponsor, equine professional, llama activity sponsor, llama professional, or person and for which warning signs have not been conspicuously posted;

 

Florida

(6) "Inherent risks of equine activities" means those dangers or conditions which are an integral part of equine activities, including, but not limited to:

(a) The propensity of equines to behave in ways that may result in injury, harm, or death to persons on or around them.

(b) The unpredictability of an equine's reaction to such things as sounds, sudden movement, and unfamiliar objects, persons, or other animals.

(c) Certain hazards such as surface and subsurface conditions.

(d) Collisions with other equines or objects.

(e) The potential of a participant to act in a negligent manner that may contribute to injury to the participant or others, such as failing to maintain control over the animal or not acting within his or her ability.

773.02 General provisions.

Except as provided in § 773.03, an equine activity sponsor, an equine professional, or any other person, which shall include a corporation or partnership, shall not be liable for an injury to or the death of a participant resulting from the inherent risks of equine activities and, except as provided in § 773.03, no participant nor any participant's representative shall have any claim against or recover from any equine activity sponsor, equine professional, or any other person for injury, loss, damage, or death of the participant resulting from any of the inherent risks of equine activities.

[Exceptions]

[Liability not limited if the person who …]

(a) Provided the equipment or tack, and knew or should have known that the equipment or tack was faulty, and it was so faulty as to be totally or partially responsible for the injury;

(b) Provided the equine and failed to make reasonable and prudent efforts to determine the ability of the participant to engage safely in the equine activity, or to determine the ability of the participant to safely manage the particular equine based on the participant's representation of his or her ability;

(c) Owns, leases, rents, has authorized use of, or is otherwise in lawful possession and control of the land or facilities upon which the participant was injured, and the injury was due totally or in part, to a dangerous latent condition which was known to the equine activity sponsor, equine professional, or person and failed to post warning signs

Illinois

47/15.  Participant's responsibility
§ 15. Participant's responsibility. It is recognized that equine activities are hazardous to participants, regardless of all feasible safety measures that can be taken.

Each participant who engages in an equine activity expressly assumes the risk of and legal responsibility for injury, loss, or damage to the participant or the participant's property that results from participating in an equine activity, except in specific situations as set forth in Section 20, when the equine activity sponsor or equine professional may be held responsible. Each participant shall have sole individual responsibility for knowing the range of his or her own ability to manage, care for, and control a particular horse or perform a particular equine activity, and it shall be the duty of each participant to act within the limits of the participant's own ability, to maintain reasonable control of the particular horse or horses at all times while participating in an equine activity, to heed all posted warnings, to perform equine activities only in an area or in facilities designated by the horseman, and to refrain from acting in a manner that may cause or contribute to the injury of anyone.

Each participant, or parent or guardian of a minor participant, may execute a release assuming responsibility for the risks of engaging in equine activities. The release shall give notice to the participant, or parent or guardian, of the risks of engaging in equine activities, including (i) the propensity of an equine to behave in dangerous ways that may result in injury to the participant, (ii) the inability to predict an equine's reaction to sound, movements, objects, persons, or animals, and (iii) the hazards of surface or subsurface conditions. A release shall remain valid until expressly revoked by the participant or, if a minor, the parent or guardian.

47/20.  Exceptions
§ 20. Exceptions.

(a) This Act shall not apply to the horse racing industry as regulated in the Illinois Horse Racing Act of 1975.

(b) Except as provided in Section 15, nothing in this Act shall prevent or limit the liability of an equine activity sponsor, an equine professional, or any other person if the equine activity sponsor, equine professional, or person:

(1) Provided the equipment or tack, and knew or should have known that the equipment or tack was faulty, and the equipment or tack was faulty to the extent that it caused the injury.

(2) Provided the equine and failed to make reasonable and prudent efforts to determine the ability of the participant to engage safely in the equine activity and determine the ability of the participant to manage safely the particular equine based on the participant's representations of his or her ability.

(3) Owns, leases, rents, or otherwise is in lawful possession and control of the land or facilities upon which the participant sustained injuries because of a dangerous latent condition that was known to the equine activity sponsor, equine professional, or person and for which warning signs were not conspicuously posted.

(4) Commits an act or omission that constitutes willful or wanton disregard for the safety of the participant, and that act or omission caused the injury.

(5) Intentionally injures the participant.

(c) Nothing in this Act shall prevent or limit the liability of an equine activity sponsor or an equine professional:

(1) Under liability provisions as set forth in the products liability laws.

(2) Under liability provisions in the Fence Act.

7/25.  Warning
§ 25. Warning.

(a) Every equine professional shall post and maintain signs that contain the warning notice specified in subsection (b) of this Section. Signs shall be placed in a clearly visible location on or near stables, corrals, or arenas where the equine professional conducts equine activities if the stables, corrals, or arenas are owned, managed, or controlled by the equine professional. The warning notice specified in subsection (b) shall appear on the sign in black letters, with each letter to be a minimum of one inch in height. Every written contract entered into by an equine professional for the providing of professional services, instruction, or the rental of equipment or tack or an equine to a participant, whether or not the contract involves equine activities on or off the location or site of the equine professional's business, shall contain in clearly readable print the warning notice specified in subsection (b).

(b) The signs and contracts described in subsection (a) shall contain the following warning notice:

"WARNING


Under the Equine Activity Liability Act, each participant who engages in an equine activity expressly assumes the risks of engaging in and legal responsibility for injury, loss, or damage to person or property resulting from the risk of equine activities."

 

North Dakota

§ 53-10-02. Liability of equine activity sponsor or equine professional limited.

1. Except as provided in subsection 2, an equine activity sponsor or an equine professional is not liable for an injury to or the death of a participant engaged in an equine activity, and, except as provided in subsection 2, no participant or participant's representative may maintain an action against or recover from an equine activity sponsor or an equine professional for an injury to or the death of a participant engaged in an equine activity. This chapter does not apply to the horse racing industry as regulated in chapter 53-06.2.

2. Nothing in subsection 1 prevents or limits the liability of an equine activity sponsor or an equine professional:

a. If the equine activity sponsor or the equine professional:

(1) Provided the equipment or tack and the equipment or tack caused the injury; or

(2) Provided the equine and failed to make reasonable and prudent efforts to determine the ability of the participant to engage safely in the equine activity, to determine the ability of the equine to behave safely with the participant, and to determine the ability of the participant to safely manage the particular equine;

b. If the equine activity sponsor or the equine professional owns, leases, rents, or otherwise is in lawful possession and control of the land or facility upon which the participant sustained an injury because of the dangerous latent condition which was known to or should have been known to the equine activity sponsor or the equine professional and for which a warning sign has not been conspicuously posted;

c. If the equine activity sponsor or the equine professional commits an act or omission that constitutes willful or wanton disregard for the safety of the participant and that act or omission caused the injury;

d. If the equine activity sponsor or the equine professional intentionally injures the participant;

e. Under products liability provisions as set forth in products liability laws;

 

Ohio

(7) "Inherent risk of an equine activity" means a danger or condition that is an integral part of an equine activity, including, but not limited to, any of the following:

(a) The propensity of an equine to behave in ways that may result in injury, death, or loss to persons on or around the equine;

(b) The unpredictability of an equine's reaction to sounds, sudden movement, unfamiliar objects, persons, or other animals;

(c) Hazards, including, but not limited to, surface or subsurface conditions;

(d) A collision with another equine, another animal, a person, or an object;

(e) The potential of an equine activity participant to act in a negligent manner that may contribute to injury, death, or loss to the person of the participant or to other persons, including, but not limited to, failing to maintain control over an equine or failing to act within the ability of the participant.

[Liability not limited if…]

(b) An equine activity sponsor, equine activity participant, equine professional, veterinarian, farrier, or other person provides an equine to an equine activity participant and fails to make reasonable and prudent efforts to determine the equine activity participant's ability to safely engage in the equine activity or to safely manage the equine based on the equine activity participant's representations of the participant's ability, the equine activity participant fails to safely engage in the equine activity or to safely manage the equine, and that failure proximately causes the harm involved.

(c) The harm involved is proximately caused by a dangerous latent condition of the land on which or the premises at which the harm occurs, an equine activity sponsor, equine activity participant, equine professional, veterinarian, farrier, or other person owns, leases, rents, or otherwise lawfully possesses and controls the land or premises and knows or should know of the dangerous latent condition, but does not post conspicuously prior to the time of the harm involved one or more signs that warn of the dangerous latent condition.

Oregon

(2) It is the policy of the State of Oregon that no person shall be liable for damages sustained by another solely as a result of risks inherent in equine activity, insofar as those risks are, or should be, reasonably obvious, expected or necessary to the person injured.

(3) It is the policy of the State of Oregon that persons responsible for equines, or responsible for the safety of those persons engaged in equine activities, who are negligent and cause foreseeable injury to a person engaged in those activities, bear responsibility for that injury in accordance with other applicable law.

[Exceptions]

[Liability not limited if the person who…]

(b) Provided the equine and failed to make reasonable and prudent efforts to determine the ability of the participant to safely ride, train, drive, groom or ride as a passenger upon an equine, to determine the ability of the equine to behave safely with the participant and to determine the ability of the participant to safely manage the particular equine; or

(c) Owns, leases, rents or otherwise is in lawful possession and control of the land or facilities upon which the participant sustained injuries because of a dangerous latent condition which was known to or should have been known to the equine activity sponsor or the equine professional and for which warning signs have not been conspicuously posted.

(2) The limitations on liability provided in ORS 30.691 shall apply to an adult participant in the circumstances listed in subsection (1)(b) of this section if the participant, prior to riding, training, driving, grooming or riding as a passenger upon an equine, knowingly executes a release stating that as a condition of participation, the participant waives the right to bring an action against the equine professional or equine activity sponsor for any injury or death arising out of riding, training, driving, grooming or riding as a passenger upon the equine. A release so executed shall be binding upon the adult participant, and no equine professional or equine activity sponsor shall be liable in the circumstances described in subsection (1)(b) of this section

South Carolina

(6) "Inherent risk of equine activity" means those dangers or conditions which are an integral part of equine activities, including, but not limited to:

(a) the propensity of an equine to behave in ways that may result in injury, harm, or death to a person on or around the equine;

(b) the unpredictability of an equine's reaction to sound, sudden movement, an unfamiliar object, a person, or another animal;

(c) certain hazards such as surface and subsurface conditions;

(d) collisions with other equines or objects; and

(e) the potential of a participant to act in a negligent manner that may contribute to injury to the participant or others, as failing to maintain control over the animal or not acting within the participant's ability.

47-9-720. Equine liability immunity; exceptions to grant of immunity.

(A) Except as provided in subsection (B), an equine activity sponsor or an equine professional is not liable for an injury to or the death of a participant resulting from an inherent risk of equine activity, and no participant or participant's representative may make a claim against, maintain an action against, or recover from an equine activity sponsor, or an equine professional, for injury, loss, damage, or death of the participant resulting from an inherent risk of equine activity.

(B) Nothing in subsection (A) prevents or limits the liability of an equine activity sponsor, or an equine professional, if the equine activity sponsor, or equine professional:

(1) (a) provided the equipment or tack and knew or should have known that the equipment or tack was faulty, and the equipment or tack was faulty to the extent that it caused the injury; or

(b) provided the equine and failed to make reasonable and prudent efforts to determine the ability of the participant to engage safely in the equine activity and to manage safely the particular equine based on the participant's representations of his ability; (2) owns, leases, rents, or otherwise is in lawful possession and control of the land or facilities upon which the participant sustained injuries because of a dangerous latent condition which was known or should have been known to the equine activity sponsor, equine professional, or person and for which warning signs have not been conspicuously posted;

Texas

87.003. Limitation on Liability
Except as provided by Section 87.004, any person, including an equine activity sponsor, equine professional, livestock show participant, or livestock show sponsor, is not liable for property damage or damages arising from the personal injury or death of a participant in an equine activity or livestock show if the property damage, injury, or death results from the dangers or conditions that are an inherent risk of an equine activity or the showing of an animal on a competitive basis in a livestock show, including:

(1) the propensity of an equine or livestock animal to behave in ways that may result in personal injury or death to a person on or around it;

(2) the unpredictability of an equine or livestock animal's reaction to sound, a sudden movement, or an unfamiliar object, person, or other animal;

(3) with respect to equine activities, certain land conditions and hazards, including surface and subsurface conditions;

(4) a collision with another animal or an object; or

(5) the potential of a participant to act in a negligent manner that may contribute to injury to the participant or another, including failing to maintain control over the equine or livestock animal or not acting within the participant's ability.

87.004. Exceptions to Limitation on Liability
A person, including an equine activity sponsor, equine professional, livestock show participant, or livestock show sponsor, is liable for property damage or damages arising from the personal injury or death caused by a participant in an equine activity or livestock show if:
(1) the injury or death was caused by faulty equipment or tack used in the equine activity or livestock show, the person provided the equipment or tack, and the person knew or should have known that the equipment or tack was faulty;

(2) the person provided the equine or livestock animal and the person did not make a reasonable and prudent effort to determine the ability of the participant to engage safely in the equine activity or livestock show and determine the ability of the participant to safely manage the equine or livestock animal, taking into account the participant's representations of ability;

(3) the injury or death was caused by a dangerous latent condition of land for which warning signs, written notices, or verbal warnings were not conspicuously posted or provided to the participant, and the land was owned, leased, or otherwise under the control of the person at the time of the injury or death and the person knew of the dangerous latent condition;

(4) the person committed an act or omission with willful or wanton disregard for the safety of the participant and that act or omission caused the injury;

(5) the person intentionally caused the property damage, injury, or death; or

(6) with respect to a livestock show, the injury or death occurred as a result of an activity connected with the livestock show and the person invited or otherwise allowed the injured or deceased person to participate in the activity and the injured or deceased person was not a participant as defined by Section 87.001(9)(B).

.  These excerpts have been selected for no particular reason other than some are different and some are similar.

THIS BOOKLET CONTAINS LEGAL INFORMATION ONLY, NOT LEGAL ADVICE, AS NO ATTORNEY-CLIENT RELATIONSHIP IS ESTABLISHED BETWEEN ANY PERSON(S) AND/OR ENTITY BY THIS BOOKLET.

 

Copyright © 2004  Jan Dawson