Peanut, Sunflower, and Rapeseed Byproducts
This is a byproduct of peanut processing for human consumption. It includes skins, broken nuts, and rejected nuts. They are high in fat and may contain additional salt and oil added in the processing. They are fairly high in tannins which act in the gut to bind proteins and make some of the protein unavailable for digestion and absorption. Limit to 5-8% of the total ration dry matter.
Sunflower meal is a byproduct of the sunflower seed processing for oil extraction. Varying amounts of hull can be found in the meal varying the amounts of protein and fiber. The most common contains some hulls and 34% crude protein. There are also a 28% and a 40% crude protein sunflower meals available. The total digestible nutrient (TDN) content of the most readily available 34% protein sunflower meal is lower than soybean meal because of its higher hull or fiber content. The fiber in sunflower meal is low in digestibility and may be a disadvantage when balancing rations for high milk production or for calves.
Sunflower meal is less palatable than soybean meal. This may be more of concern at high levels of feeding. A rule of thumb is to have no more than 20 to 25% of the grain ration as sunflower meal (15% for the 28% sunflower meal). Additionally, sunflower meal has a less desirable amino acid profile than soybean meal. The most limiting amino acid in sunflower meal is lysine.
Rapeseed (Canola) Meal
Canola meal is a byproduct of canola processing for oil for human consumption. Canola meal is a good protein supplement for livestock. The nutritive value of canola meal compares favorably to soybean meal, being just slightly lower in protein and energy but higher in fiber. It is also a good source of minerals.
Rapeseed meal contains glucosinolates which are goitrogenic glycosides toxic to animals. Rumen fermentation breaks down glucosinolates into other toxic compounds. The new canola varieties are very low in glucosinolates with the resulting meal not representing a real concern when feeding cattle.