Corn Gluten Feed
This is the major byproduct of the wet milling process after the extraction of the oil and starch. It is made up primarily of corn bran (2/3) and steepwater (1/3). The more steepwater the darker the product. This product is sold wet or dry and is an excellent feed for the ruminant animal. Protein content of corn gluten feed ranges from 20 to 25% (dry matter basis). Corn gluten feed is also high in digestible fiber, with almost no starch and fat.
Relative to corn grain, corn gluten feed is low in calcium and potassium and high in phosphorus. It is particularly good blended into mixed diets for high producing cattle. The high fiber content may help reduce potential rumen acidosis and increase milk fat percentage.
Corn bran is the fibrous component of corn gluten feed and a byproduct of corn milling. The bran is not always blended with steep liquor to make corn gluten feed and can be sold separately. Corn bran is the hull of the corn kernel. It is a high digestibility fibrous material and an excellent energy supplement to high roughage rations. Results with corn bran are similar to those with soyhulls.
Corn Gluten Meal
Corn gluten meal is a byproduct of wet milling of corn for starch and syrup. This comes out later in the process than corn gluten feed, after centrifuging a slurry that contains starch, gluten, and soluble organic material. The gluten extracted is dried generating corn gluten meal. Two products are produced, a 40% (also known as corn germ meal) and a 60% crude protein supplement with the 60% being the most common. Both types have high RUP content. Energy content of CGM is only slightly less than corn grain. Because of palatability problems amount fed should be limited to 5 lb/cow/day.
This is a byproduct of the dry milling of corn for grits and flour. It contains corn bran, germ and some of the starchy portion or endosperm of the kernel. It is typically fed to cattle as a replacement for corn. This is a very palatable product with fat content ranging from 5 to 12%. It is higher in protein, fat and fiber than corn with equivalent energy content. Hominy is very finely ground and it can be handled and fed similarly to ground corn. The maximum amounts to be fed may be limited by the high fat content.
Hominy has been linked to acidosis when introduced to feedlot rations and it is suggested that it does not exceed 20% of the diet's dry matter. In dairy cattle rations hominy should be limited to 50% of the grain mix and 20-30% of the total dry matter.
Shelled corn is the most common grain available to dairy cows and feedlot operations. It is a very high energy grain with the potential of causing digestion upsets if appropriate management is not applied when feeding it. Livestock and poultry consume upwards of 85% of the domestic supply of corn in the United states. It is typically ground to be fed to animals or mixed with other ingredients to produce a balanced diet.